Hundreds of studies in the educational and biomedical academic literature describe the use of animals, and alternatives, in clinical and surgical training, and in many preclinical disciplines. Others study the attitudes of students toward the use of animals or alternatives. Such studies can be located in the InterNICHE studies database, at, or in databases of educational research such as Eric, or in biomedical bibliographic databases such as Pubmed.

Studies of educational efficacy
Perhaps the most important studies in this field compare the learning outcomes of students trained via traditional harmful animal use, with those of students training using humane teaching methods. For overall reviews of these studies see the summary articles below.

Review: Patronek & Rauch 2007

Humane teaching methods: Knight 2007 - 2012

Student conscientious objection: Knight 2014